For a few years Toyota expands its range of models with all-wheel drive. The 4×4 / AWD range includes nine models that differ in size, character and performance, as well as in the driving technology used.
Most popular and available on a large number of Toyota models is the AWD-i hybrid system. It is offered as an option on the Yaris Cross, Corolla Cross, RAV4 models, and as standard on the RAV4 Plug-in Hybrid and Highlander.
AWD-i is a combination of a hybrid system that drives the front axle and an independent electric motor on the rear axle. In a hybrid system, the gasoline engine works with the electric motor through a hybrid transmission. The rear unit works independently and is automatically activated by the computer when starting, in turns and on smooth or slippery surfaces.
Another variant of the 4×4 vehicle can be found in the Land Cruiser, which has been manufactured for 70 years and has been on the market for more than half a century. Both use standard four-wheel drives, but with different operating principles.
Land Cruiser It uses a permanent 4×4 drive and a reduction gear. It uses a small center difference slip (LSD) Torsen with lock and LSD Torsen rear differential. Off-road driving can be supported by a number of systems, including an adaptive stiffness stabilization system, air suspension on the rear axle with adjustable ground clearance, hill and descent assistance, Traction Control and Multi-Terrain Selection .
On the other hand Hilux when driving on asphalt, it uses the rear wheel drive and the front axle is engaged manually. In difficult terrain, the driver can also activate the reducer. The car is equipped with LSD rear differential, rear differential lock and hill assist system.
There is another model in the Toyota range that uses a mechanical 4×4 vehicle – the RAV4. This model, in the configuration with the 2.0 petrol engine, is available as a 4×4. Its mechanical operation and torque transmission to the drive shaft to the rear axle is electronically controlled. The computer engages the rear wheels to maintain traction on slippery surfaces, bumps, snow, sand or mud, and when cornering at speed.
The last one is the GR-FOUR drivetrain, which was developed from Toyota’s experience in the world rally championship. The system debuted in the GR Yaris, inspired by the Toyota GR Yaris Rally1, which is fighting for victory in the current WRC season.
The GR-FOUR electronically controlled and permanent all-wheel drive system with rear differential allows you to choose between three driving modes: Track (separates strength 50:50), Sport (distributes power 30:70) and Normal (distributes power 60:40). Optionally, the GR Yaris can be equipped with Torsen front and rear limited differentials, which provide more traction and better handling during cornering.